Cross Index Desulfonema
SuperSet Prokaryote, Eubacteria Gliding Bacteria and Sulfur Bacteria
Compare Cytophagales, Beggiatoales

Single Celled, rod shaped Capnocytophaga, Chitinophaga pinensis , Cytophaga, Flexibacter, Flexithrix dorotheae, Lysobacter, Microscilla, Sporocytophaga myxococcoides, Thermomena,
Flattened, filamentous Gliding: Alysiella filiformis, Simonsiella,
Sulfur oxidizing,Gliding: Achromatium, Beggiatoa alba, Thioploca, Thiospirillopsis floridana, Thiothrix nivea,
The Pelonemas: Achroanema spp, Desmanthos thiorenophilum, Pelenema, Peloploca,
Other Genera: Agitococcus lubricus , Desulfonema Herpetosiphon, Isosphaera pallida, Leucothrix mucor, Saprospira, Toxothrix trichogenes,Vitreoscilla

Sulfur Bacteria: Desulferella acetivorans ,Desulfobacter Desulfobacterium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfococcus Desulfomicrobium Desulfomonas pigra reclassified as DesulfovibrioDesulfomonile tiedjei , Desulfonema Desulfosarcina variabilis Desulfotomaculum, Desulfovibrio Desulfuromonas acetoxidans Thermodesulfobacterium

Contrast Archaea


Morphology Desulfonema
Staining Gram stain may be positive (unequally stained), but electron microscopy of ultrathin sections exhibits cell walls characteristic of Gram-negative bacteria
Morphology Cells arranged in uniseriately multicellular, Filaments are 3-8 um in diameter and sometimes about 1 mm in length; the nearly cylindrical cells are 2.5-13 um long. Cross-walls are visible
Motility flexible filaments with gliding motility.
Specialized structures Granules of poly-B-hydroxybutyric acid are commonly stored. Filaments are always attached to surfaces that are necessary as substrata for gliding moving.; the outer membrane has a wavy structure
Solid surface Gliding movement and growth are promoted by addition of insoluble substrata such as agar or inorganic precipitates


Growth Parameters Desulfonema
Tropism chemoorganotrophs or chemolithotrophs,
Oxygen Strictly anaerobic metabolism respiratory, growth by fermentation not observed. Sulfate and other oxidized sulfur compounds serve as electron acceptors and are reduced to hydrogen sulfide
Temperature Temperature range: 10-36`C
Requirements Anoxic media containing a reductant and vitamins are necessary for growth Marine forms usually require brackish water or seawater concentrations of NaCl, MgCl2 and, in some cases, CaCl2..Fatty acids and other organic acids are used as electron donors and carbon sources; oxidation of electron donors is complete and results in carbon dioxide
Products Cytochromes are present
Unique features .....


Genome Desulfonema
G+C Mol % 34-42 (Tm)


Reference Desulfonema
First citation Widdel,F. 1980. Anaerober Abbau von Fettsauren und Benzoesaure durch neu isolierte Arten Sulfat-reduzierender Bakterien. Doctoral thesis Univeritat Gottingen.
The Prokaryotes  
Bergey's Systematatic p 2128 F. Widdel
Bergey's Determinative p 496