Cross Index Cytophaga
SuperSet Prokaryote, Eubacteria Gliding Bacteria
Compare Cytophagales, Beggiatoales

Single Celled, rod shaped Capnocytophaga, Chitinophaga pinensis , Cytophaga, Flexibacter, Flexithrix dorotheae, Lysobacter, Microscilla, Sporocytophaga myxococcoides, Thermomena,
Flattened, filamentous Gliding: Alysiella filiformis, Simonsiella,
Sulfur oxidizing,Gliding: Achromatium, Beggiatoa alba, Thioploca, Thiospirillopsis floridana, Thiothrix nivea,
The Pelonemas: Achroanema spp, Desmanthos thiorenophilum, Pelenema, Peloploca,
Other Genera: Agitococcus lubricus , Desulfonema Herpetosiphon, Isosphaera pallida, Leucothrix mucor, Saprospira, Toxothrix trichogenes,Vitreoscilla

Contrast Archaea


Morphology Cytophaga
Staining Gram-negative
Morphology Very short to moderately long rods, 0.3-0.8 x 1.5-15 um, only rarely longer, with rounded or slightly tapered ends. The longer rods are flexible.
Motility Motile by gliding
Specialized structures Resting stages not known
Solid surface On solid media with a low nutrient content (eg. below 0.1% peptone), the colonies are spreading swarms, sometimes penetrating the agar, often very delicate and occasionally with a reddish or greenish iridescence. On substrates with a higher nutrient content (eg. above 0.3% peptone), the colonies usually become compact, often convex, with a smooth or wavy edge, sometimes sunken into the agar. Cell mass usually more or less intensely pigmented, yellow, orange or red, due to cell-bound carotenoids, flexirubin type pigments, or both. When covered with alkali (eg. 20% KOH solution; flexirubin reaction), colonies may reversibly change their colour from yellow to purple- or red- brown. Unpigmented species or strains also occur.


Growth Parameters Cytophaga
Tropism Chemoorganotrophs
Oxygen Strict aerobes or facultative anaerobes. Some may use NO3- as terminal electron acceptor Metabolism respiratory or fermentative
pH Optimum pH: around 7.
Temperature Optimum temperature: 20-35`C.
Products In fermentation, acetate, propionate and succinate may be produced. Organic acids may, however, also arise during growth of strictly aerobic strains, particularly on sugar-containing media. All decompose one or several kinds of organic macromolecules, mainly various proteins and poly- saccharides, including cellulose, agar, chitin, pectin and strach.
Unique features  
Habitat Organisms common in soil, decomposing organic matter, freshwater and marine habitats


Genome Cytophaga
G+C Mol % 30-45
  the mol% G + C of many strains occurring around 35


Reference Cytophaga
First citation Winogradsky,S. 1929. Etudes sur la microbiologie du sol. Sur la degradation de la cellulose dans le sol. Ann. Inst. Pasteur(Paris) 43:549-633
The Prokaryotes  
Bergey's Systematatic p 2015 H. Reichenbach
Bergey's Determinative p 486