Cross Index Isosphaera pallida
SuperSet Prokaryote, Eubacteria Gliding Bacteria and Budding and/or appendaged bacteria
Compare Cytophagales, Beggiatoales

Single Celled, rod shaped Capnocytophaga, Chitinophaga pinensis , Cytophaga, Flexibacter, Flexithrix dorotheae, Lysobacter, Microscilla, Sporocytophaga myxococcoides, Thermomena,
Flattened, filamentous Gliding: Alysiella filiformis, Simonsiella,
Sulfur oxidizing,Gliding: Achromatium, Beggiatoa alba, Thioploca, Thiospirillopsis floridana, Thiothrix nivea,
The Pelonemas: Achroanema spp, Desmanthos thiorenophilum, Pelenema, Peloploca,
Other Genera: Agitococcus lubricus , Desulfonema Herpetosiphon, Isosphaera pallida, Leucothrix mucor, Saprospira, Toxothrix trichogenes,Vitreoscilla

Appendaged Bacteria

Prosthecate Bacteria: Ancalomicrobium adetum Asticcacaulis Caulobacter Dichotomicrobium thermohalophilum, Filomicrobium fusiforme, Hirschia baltica, Hyphomicrobium Hyphomonas, Labrys monachus , Pedomicrobium, Prosthecobacter fusiformis, Prosthecomicrobium, Stella, Verrucomicrobium spinosum

Non Prosthecate Bacteria Angulomicrobium tetraedrale Blastobacter Ensifer adherans,Gallionella ferrunginea Gemmiger formicilis, Nevskia ramosa, Seliberia stellata

Planctomycetales Planctomyces, Gemmata obscuriglobus , Isosphaera pallida, Pirelulla

Contrast Archaea


Morphology Isosphaera pallida
Staining Gram-variable
Morphology Spherical cells 2.0-2.5 um in diameter, forming chains. Chain length indefinite, often over 100 cells The cell wall appears to lack a peptidoglycan layer as the wall has two electron dense layers separated by a transparent layer
Motility Motile by gliding if media made with 0.4% agarose or 0.5% Gelrite but not with 1.5% agar
Pili flagella, present
Specialized structures Buds intercalary or at chain ends. Chain branching does not occur. Capsules are not formed. Gas vesicles are usually present, normally forming one "vacuole" per cell. Resting stages are not known. Pili flagella, present
Division Cell division by budding.
Solid surface colonies produce pink carotenoid pigment


Growth Parameters Isosphaera pallida
Tropism Chemoheterotrophic Oligotrophic
Oxygen Strictly aerobic. respiratory metabolism
pH Optimal pH range: 7.8-8.8
Temperature Temperature range: 35-55C optimum 41C
Requirements Glucose or lactate only known carbon sources glucose above 0.025% inhibitory
Unique features Carotenoids present. No chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll present. Resistent to penicillin G
Habitat neutral to alkaline hot springs


Genome Isosphaera pallida
G+C Mol % for one strain (ISlB) is 62.2.


Reference Isosphaera pallida
First citation Giovannoni, S.J., E. Schabtach and R. W. Castenholz 1987 Isophaera pallida, gen and comb. nov., a gliding, budding eubacterium from hot springs. Arch Microbiol 147: 276-284
The Prokaryotes  
Bergey's Systematatic p 1959 S.J. Giovannoni and R. W. Castenholz
Bergey's Determinative p 497