* KOSOVA - Electronic Oppositions - Insurgency Online *

| Dr. Michael Dartnell | Department of Political Science | University of Windsor | Windsor | Ontario | Canada |

| Albanian Terrorism in Kosovo and Metohija (Yugoslav government-sponsored site) | ARTA (Kosova Albanian newspaper) | Council for the Defence of Human Rights and Freedoms (Prishtina, Kosova) | Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Serbian Ministry of Information | Government of the Republic of Kosova | Home Page of the Republic of Kosova | Kosova | Kosova Crisis Centre (pro-Kosovar) | Kosova Information Centre (pro-Kosovar) | Kosova Liberation Army (UCK) | Kosova Press (pro-Kosovar) | Kosovo.com (Web site of the Serbian Democratic Movement - pro-democracy and anti-secession religious group) | Kosovo.net (Yugoslav government - sponsored site) | Radio 21 (first Internet radio in Albanian, Prishtina, Kosova) and English-language site |

U.N. Administration | U.N. Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) |

Operation Allied Force | Air Power in Kosovo (U.S. Air Forces in Europe) | Allied Forces Southern Europe - Operation Allied Force | Aviano Air Force Base and Allied Force Pres Releases | Ministère de la Défense (France) | Center for Defense Information (CDI) Kosovo Issue Area | Crisis in Kosovo (Air Force Link) | Kosovo: News, Background and Resources (wide range of information about situation in Kosovo and actions of UK and Allies in trying to resolve the political dispute behind conflict. It offers a range of news items and background material on the course of the Kosovo conflict, as well as information on forces - British, NATO and Yugoslav - in the region. Links to useful sources of information elsewhere on Internet, UK Ministry of Defence and Foreign and Commonwealth Office) | Operation Allied Force - Defence Link United States European Command | OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission (the largest, most complex and most challenging mission that the OSCE has ever undertaken. The KVM will verify the FRY's compliance with United Nations Security Council resolutions 1160 and 1199; it will verify maintenance of the cease-fire, monitor movement of forces, provide assistance in the return of refugees and displaced persons, supervise elections, help in forming elected bodies of self-administration and police forces, and promote human rights and democracy-building) | Serbia and Montenegro - Special Section on Kosovo (US Dept. of State) |

Negotiations | Contact Group on the Former Yugoslavia (Office of the High Representative) | Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina | Rambouillet Meeting on Kosovo, Background Papers (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Feb. 1999) |

Humanitarianism and human rights | Canadian International Development Agency - Crisis in Kosovo: Canada Reponds | Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières - Kosovo (MSF) | Focus on Human Rights, Humanitarian Law Violations in Kosovo (Human Rights Watch), "Crackdown On Albanian Media In Kosovo - Last Albanian Newspaper Heavily Fined" (March 22, 1999) and Photo Gallery of the Kosovo Conflict | Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia | Human Rights on the Internet: Sites that Encourage Activism (this annotated Webliography offers a host of sites and Internet resources devoted to human rights issues, with an emphasis on activism. Resources are categorized under Starting points, Web directories and meta sites, Organizations, Annual surveys, and Lists. Part of the Association of College & Research Libraries News series) | Humanitarian Law Center (Belgrade) | The Hunger Site | International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (mandated to prosecute persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991. The Statute defines the Tribunalšs authority to prosecute four clusters of offences: grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions; violations of the laws or customs of war; genocide; and, crimes against humanity (Article 5) | The Road to Kosovo Could End Here (Amnesty International) | Oxfam International - Programs - Kosovo | United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in the former Yugoslavia - Periodic Reports (United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights) | UNICEF-USA Kosovo Relief Efforts (providing the latest information on humanitarian relief efforts in Kosovo and neighboring nations. The site features official UNICEF press releases on recent events, situation reports on the region's status, data on the refugee crisis, and an Alert! mailing list, which keeps subscribers up-to-date on important issues affecting the human rights of children in the Balkans and worldwide) |

News agencies | A Beginner's Guide to the Balkans (ABCNEWS.com Special Report) | Agence France-Presse - Kosovo: l'OTAN frappe | BBC News - Kosovo conflict: Special report, Radio B92 - off the air but on the Net (March 24, 1999), Net shows Kosovo emotions (March 26, 1999), NATO Air Strikes on Yugoslavia, Your views on Kosovo (March 29, 1999), Kosovo - the conflict on the Web (March 29, 1999) and "Nato under 'cyber attack'" (March 31, 1999), "Ski tragedy airman faces dismissal" (April 3, 1999), "Serbia closes B92 radio station" (April 2, 1999), "NATO's mission impossible - Serb TV" (April 8, 1999), "NATO retracts media ultimatum (April 9, 1999), "Foot Soldiers in the Media War" (Kevin Bishop, April 10, 1999) and "BBC launches refugee radio link" (April 16, 1999) | Bina (Belgrade News Agency) - Kosovo Dossier | CNN In-Depth Specials - Strike on Yugoslavia and E-Mails from Kosovo | Central Europe Online - Kosovo Crisis | Common Dreams' Newscentre - Kosovo crisis - The drumbeats of war (collection of latest news and background pieces from US-based site) | Le Courrier des Balkans | Le Monde - L'OTAN déclare la guerre à la Serbie and "L'ère de la cyberguerre est arrivée" (Olivier Puech, 1er avril 1999) | Le Monde diplomatique - Kosovo, L'avenir du Kosovo se joue à Rambouillet (6 février 1999) and "Preparing for Cyberwar - Mars gives way to Minerva" (Times are changing. After the war in Kosovo some of the old certainties inherited from the cold war are about to give way to new military doctrines. The network - the nervous system through which information circulates - is now the organisational paradigm. In their research into this transformation some analysts are calling for the United States to prepare for "cyberwar" and "netwar", in which enemies are defeated by interrupting their command structures and their systems of thought and communication, rather than aiming to destroy them physically. Francis Pisani, August 1999) and Chronique d'un génocide annoncé (7 mars 2000) | MSNCBC - Kosovo | Media Centar Pristina (pro-Yugoslav) | NPR Special Coverage - Crisis in Kosovo (National Public Radio) | News Unlimited - Kosovo (documentary site with news up-dates) and "The view from Yugoslavia - E-mails received from ordinary citizens inside Yugoslavia" (Patrick Barkham, March 27, 1999) | Out There News - Kosovo dies for independence and Kosovo - Albanian Free Zone? (maps of ethnic cleansing of Kosovo) | PBS Online Newshour - Strikes in Yugoslavia and War on the Web (March 29, 1999) | Radio Yugoslavia - beograd.com War Edition | TF1 (France) - La guerre OTAN / Serbie | Washington Post: Balkans Special Report | Yugoslav Independent Press |

Digital activism | Actual (digest of e-mail messages about conflict, partly coming from Yugoslavia itself, C3 - Centre for Culture and Communication, Budapest) | AIM (Alternative Information Network in former Yugoslavia) | AKUT (website set up to amplify difficult situation of independent democratising movement in Yugoslavia and its impact on local situation in Vienna as well as trans-european) | ALBANEWS (mailing list dedicated to distribution of news and information related to Albania, Kosova, Albanian populated regions in FYR of Macedonia and Montenegro, as well as Albanian diaspora world-wide) | Anonymizer - Kosovo Privacy Project (in response to human rights community, Anonymizer set up two special services to handle needs of Kosovars, Serbs, and others reporting on current situation in Kosovo) | Open Channels for Kosovo (in support of independent reporting and analysis from journalists who daily cover situation in Kosova and region) | Domovina Net (pioneering project makes available TV, radio, video and other multimedia content relating to Bosnia, Croatia and Kosovo on the Web) | eGroups.com - kosovo-reports Group (special mechanism to post real life informational e-mail updates from Kosovo/Serbia/Yugoslavia region to Web for world to see. All involved are welcome to contribute story from people on ground to those in skies. Third person accounts or news service stories discouraged) | RealGuide - Kosovo Conflict (in-depth audio and video coverage) | The War Diaries by A.G. in Belgrade at - Webcinema (video produced by the Low Fi Video group in Belgrade and written diary by Serbian Filmmaker A.G. [name withheld] 34 year old independent filmmaker.in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Diaries and video date from March 22, 1999 onward) and ifilm.net (Internet Film Network) | Wired News - "Email Assist for Yugoslavs" (Leander Kahney, March 26, 1999), "Net Dispatches from Kosovo's War" (Leander Kahney and James Glave, March 26, 1999), "Yugoslavia's B-92 Goes Dark" (Leander Kahney, April 2, 1999), "Yugoslav Dissident Lauded" (April 7, 1999) and "Anonymous Web Surfing? Uh-uh" (Chris Oakes, April 13, 1999) | "Anonymous email service for Yugoslav correspondents" (europemedia.com, March 30, 1999) |

Analysis and resources | Albania - A country study (detailed and readily accessible account on Albania, US Library of Congress) | Balkans Anti-War and Human Rights Resources and Former Yugoslavia in Cyberspace (PeaceNet, IGC) | The Balkan Institute | Bosnian Institute (education and information on history and culture of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and actively encourages growth of pluralist democratic society in region) | Contemporary Conflicts - Albania (War, Peace and Security Guide, Canadian Forces College) | Federation of American Scientists Military Analysis Network - Target Kosovo and Kosovo Cloud Cover | INCORE guide to Internet sources on conflict and ethnicity in Kosovo | International Committee to Protect Free Media in Yugoslavia - Free 2000 | Info on Kosovo (Alan Spector, February 8, 1999) | Institute for War & Peace Reporting (independent publishing and media group aims to inform international debate on conflict and provides training and platform for independent media and other democratic voices to contribute to resolution of conflict and strengthening of civil society, democracy and rule of law) | International Crisis Group South Balkans Project - Kosovo (ICG's South Balkans project focuses on this troubled region looks in particular at plight of Albanian population in area) and Reports Index | Jane's Information Group- Kosovo Crisis: Defence Special Feature | The Law Professors' Network - Legal Guide to the Kosovo Conflict (University of Pittsburgh School of Law) | NEWW - Network of East-West Women - Kosova War Update | The Orthodox Diocese of Raska and Prizren (one of the oldest dioceses of the Serbian Orthodox Church includes vast area of Kosovo, Metohija and Raska region in Southern Serbia) | Political Resources on the Net - Kosovo / Kosova | Stratfor's Kosovo Crisis Center | Z Magazine on U.S./NATO Bombings |

Articles and reports | The Digital Journalist - David Brauchli's Kosovo Diary (personal account of Albanian conflict, June 11, 1998) | Salon Magazine - "Banned in Belgrade" (Janelle Brown, March 25, 1999) | "Kosovo: From Crisis to a Permanent Solution" (European Action Council for Peace in the Balkans and Public International Law & Policy Group of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, November 1, 1997) | "Conflict in Kosovo: Failure of Prevention? An Analytical Documentation, 1992-1998" (Stefan Troebst, European Center for Minority Issues ER #1) | "Kosovo: NATO and Military Action" (Tim Youngs, Mark Oakes, and Paul Bowers, UK House of Commons Library Research Papers) | "A brave fight to save B-92" (Robin Hammam, The Independent, April 12, 1999) | "The Case Against Intervention in Kosovo" (Benjamin Schwarz and Christopher Layne The Nation April 19, 1999) | "Voyage to the Eye of the Yugoslav Hurricane" (Public Interest Report, Volume 46, No. 3, May/June 1993, Journal of the Federation of American Scientists) |


| Electronic Oppositions | Insurgency Online | Online Resource Guide to Political Inquiry |

If any links remain inactive after several attempts, if you would like to add links or documents, or if you have questions, please contact Michael Dartnell at: mdartne@uwindsor.ca.
Last update: March 8, 2000.