What I'm Reading
Home Up What I'm Writing What I'm Reading



Some Leisurely Recent Readings (in the Yellow box) -- Politically Incorrect and Away From the Academic Fray?

The years (2006/2008) I have been intentionally reading and considering "the other side" of the arguments--multiple-perspective-taking.

Books. 2008

1. Wiker, B. (2008). 10 books that screwed up the world. Washington: Regnery Publishing.

2. Bragg, M. (2006) 12 books that changed the world. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

There is only one author (yet two different books) common to the two lists. 

Global Warming
2008-- Read with interest

1. Flannery, T. ((2005). The weather makers. New York: Harper Collins Publisher.

2. Essex, C. & McKitrick, R. (2007). Taken by storm, The troubles science, policy, and politics of global warming. Toronto: Key Porter Books Ltd. Technically fascinating!

3. Lomborg, B. (2007). Cool it. New York: Alfred A Knopf. I liked his case for a more reasonable fiscal ($$$) response to the issues.

2007--The three interesting books that I have read on this topic recently are:

1. Bjorn Lomborg (2001), The Skeptical Environmentalist. Lomborg is a statistician, not an environmentalist, or activist, so he really has "no horse in this race." I found his critique of the environmentalist's agenda and research very compelling. I have encountered a couple of references to his work by "authorities in the field" that were dismissive, but I saw no argument for that dismissive approach.
2. P. J. Michaels (2004), Meltdown, The Predictable Distortion of Global Warming by Scientists, Politicians and the Media.
Although this book comes from the Cato Institute, one risks committing the genetic fallacy if one dismisses it without dealing with the arguments, the evidence, and the critique offered in the book. I bought it to read the last few chapters on the Philosophical motivation, but found I became more and more intrigued by the technical details and the evidence. The book provides a great deal of evidence on the fraud, fudging, and misrepresentation in the environmental movement. And what surprised me most was that even the premier journals like Science and Nature are not immune. 
For example, Benjamin Santer (a Dept of Energy Climatologist), publishes a paper in Nature (1996) documenting "a strong correspondence between temperatures in the trophosphere-the earth's active weather zone-and projections of climate models" using weather balloon data from 1962 to 1988. However, as Michaels pointed out, the weather balloon data were actually available from 1957 to 1995, and when the total data set was used the correlation washed out. It looks like selective data use to serve one's vision--"The Tyranny of Visions." The book is filled with critique like this that should at least raise the call for the familiar childhood refrain "Stop! Look! Listen!"
3. S. F. Singer and D. T. Avery (2007), Unstoppable Global Warming, Every 1500 Years.   
This book was just released and I'm about three-quarters of the way through it. Great read! Just as an example, they give an even more damaging critique of Santer's contributions to the IPCC report in 1996 (p.62-64). It reads like outright fraud on Santer's part. The Tyranny of a Vision! 
I think the authors are right when they claim CO2 is not the forcing agent.
Every other chapter title in the book starts "The baseless fears..."
An earlier book I found informative was Eco-Sanity by J. L. Bast, P. J. Hill & R. C. Rue (1994). Also, I learned to be suspicious of the alarmists after reading Julian Simon's "The Ultimate Resource."
I also find an affinity with Thomas Sowell's critiques of left-wing do-goodery in The Quest for Cosmic Justice (1999) and Barbarians Inside the Gates (1999). "Stop! Look! Listen" before you cross the Global Warming ice-flow.
Radical Islam 1. Bruce Bawer (2006). While Europe Slept.

2. Mark Steyn (2006). America Alone.

3. Oriana Fallaci (2004). The Force of Reason.

4. Lawrence Wright (2006). The Looming Tower.

5. Robert Spencer (2006). The Truth about Muhammad.

6. Robert Spencer (2005). The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades)

7. Efraim Karsh (2006). Islamic Imperialism

All of the above paint an alarming picture of Islamicism. The information and arguments seem quite compelling. These books seem to carry more force (emotionally) than more academic works like:

8. Bat Ye'or (2005, 2006). Eurabia, The Euro-Arab Axis.

9. Bat Ye'or (1996). The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam.

10. Bat Ye'or (2002). Islam and Dhimmitude

11. Bernard Lewis (2002). What Went Wrong?

12. Bernard Lewis (2003). The Crisis of Islam.

Ironically, the twelve books read together, while perhaps aligning with politically incorrect practice, do seem to lack the "other side" of the argument, that is, the arguments for Islamicism. Most of the the books above may earn the label of "politically incorrect" based on a multicultural sense of tolerance, sensitivity, and so on, rather than rational arguments.

The New Atheism 1. Victor Stenger (2007). God, The Failed Hypothesis. New York: Prometheus Books.

2. Harris, Sam (2004). The End of Faith. New York: W. W. Norton & Company

3. Harris, Sam (2007). Letter to a Christian Nation. New York. Alfred A. Knopf

4. Dawkins, Richard (2006). The God Delusion. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company

I personally found the above four books interesting reading and informative on many points, but weak in balance, argument, and discipline. While they may address many legitimate concerns the style is more rhetorical, and narrow, than scholarly. Ironically, the "tyranny of a vision" facing "five smooth stones."

While not a fan of Deepak Chopra, I found his review of "The God Delusion" in Skeptic (Vol 13, No 2, 2007, pages 52-54) at least open.

The review of Dawkins by Alvin Plantinga was more interesting-- ( http://www.christianitytoday.com/bc/2007/002/1.21.html )

Plantinga, the philosopher, comments:

"Now despite the fact that this book is mainly philosophy, Dawkins is not a philosopher (he’s a biologist).  Even taking this into account, however, much of the philosophy he purveys is at best jejune.  You might say that some of his forays into philosophy are at best sophomoric, but that would be unfair to sophomores; the fact is (grade inflation aside) many of his arguments would receive a failing grade in a sophomore philosophy class."

And concludes:

"By way of conclusion: The God Delusion is full of bluster and bombast, but it really doesn’t give even the slightest reason for thinking belief in God mistaken, let alone a “delusion”.  The naturalism that Dawkins embraces, furthermore, in addition to its intrinsic unloveliness and its dispiriting conclusions about human beings and their place in the universe, is in deep self-referential trouble.  There is no reason to believe it; and there is excellent reason to reject it." 

5. Dennett, D. (2006). Breaking the Spell. New York: Viking (Just started reading this one.)

First Nations 1. Flanagan, T. (2000). First Nations? Second Thoughts. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press.

This is a pretty good history of the aboriginal issues in Canada (and also in part the US, given the panoramic perspective Flanagan adopts).


2. VanWynsberghe, R. M. (2002). AlterNatives. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Informative read of the environmental issues in Southern Ontario linked to Walpole Island and the "chemical valley" to the north.

Homosexuality Too many interesting readings to list in this box. But a reference list may be seen here.  
Guns Three good ones here...


Evil 1. Zimbardo, P. (2007). The Lucifer effect. New York: Random House.

2. Gross, J. T. (2006). Fear. New York: Random House.

3. Gazzaniga, M. S. (2005).  The ethical brain. New York: Harper Perennial.

4. Shermer, M. (2004). The science of good and evil. New York: Times Books, Henry Holt and Company.

5. Chamberlain, P. (1996). Can we bo good without God? Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter-Varsity Press.

6. Buckman, R. (2000). Can we be good without God? Toronto: Penguin Books.

7. Frum, D. & Perle, R. (2003) An end to evil. New York: Random House.

8. Miller, A. G. (Ed) (2004). The social psychology of good and evil. New York: The Guilford Press.

9. Baumeister, R. F. (1999) Evil New York: Henry Holt and Company.


The Media    

Robert J. Sternberg (Ed) (2002). Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid.

Interesting theoretical perspectives. Puts the academics and their ad hominems in a new light.

Frederick Crews (2001) "Postmodern Pooh."

A nice fit with the Sternberg book just mentioned.

Christina Hoff Sommers  "The War Against Boys"

This book is as "eye-opening" as her first book "Who Stole Feminism."  Seems to be well researched. It also casts Carol Gilligan in a new light--a bad light.

Alan Sokal & Jean Bricmont  "Fashionable Nonsense, Postmodern Intellectuals Abuse of Science"

Anyone looking for material arguing against postmodernity will find it here. The book also contains Sokal's original "Hoax"  published in Social Text.

Paul Gross, Norman Levitt & Martin Lewis  "The Flight From Science and Reason"

This 1996 publication of the Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences has great material arguing against many of the tenets of  postmodernity.

Simson Garfinkle  "Database Nation"

We're under surveillance. So what's the future of privacy? Garfinkle--a journalist--sees a project in the works "...that anything that happens anywhere can be known, recorded, and preserved." The publication date for this book is 2000, but it may already be out of date.  Some have claimed that he ECHELON project is already doing just this, or just about this. See http://civilliberty.miningco.com/newsissues/civilliberty/msubpech.htm

Paul Vitz  "The Faith of the Fatherless"

A psychologist who was an atheist until later in life decided to investigate the family life of notable atheists in history. In this group, his experimental group, he finds evidence of "problematic" fathers. Weak, abusive, and absent fathers are prominent..... His control group is made up of prominent theists in history--a group showing very good father-figure influences. The numbers noted make this STATISTICALLY interesting, and thus an intriguing thesis worth considering. Although many elements in this thesis seem overly simplified, he does appear to acknowledge that the  actual mechanics are likely quite complex. 

Wm. Dembski   "The Design Inference"

An interesting melding of STATISTICS, biology, philosophy (particularly epistemology), and theology. Quite technical...quite interesting! 

Dave Grossman "On Killing"

A military psychologist writes on training people to kill. The techniques have similarities to video games, with implications for the armed violence seen in young people. An interesting STATISTICAL note is the accuracy rate of soldiers over time when using firearms. Grossman contends that in earlier military conflicts,  many, if not most, soldiers would intentionally miss their target. Military training personnel then developed techniques to overcome the natural aversion to killing--techniques, he contends, today's youth practice incessantly.

Jeffrey Satinover "The Torah Codes"

Satinover is a psychiatrist, who is now involved in the study of mathematics. He, like many others, is intrigued by the STATISTICAL phenomenon know as the "Torah codes" which gained some credibility when reported in the journal Statistical Science. The codes are linguistic patterns noted in the Hebrew text of the Torah. The patterns are dramatically evident beyond simple chance levels, and this phenomenon has impelled many to pursue the explanation in some depth. Satinover, presents a balance overview, with caution and tentativeness. To date, I have yet to encounter a compelling refutation or explanation of this phenomenon.

Thomas Hibbs "Shows About Nothing: Nihilism in Popular Culture from the Excorcist to Seinfeld"




References for I paper I have been working on regarding sexual orientation.

Adams, P. F. & Hardy, A. M. (1991). AIDS knowledge and attitudes for July-September 199: Provisional data from the National Health Interview Survey, Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics 198 (Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, September 26, 1990, p.11).

American Psychiatric Association, (1993). Psychiatrist’s view on homosexuality. Psychiatric News, September. Washington: D.C. American Psychiatric Association.

American Psychiatric Association, (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Washington: D.C. American Psychiatric Association.

Bailey, J. M. (1995). Biological perspectives on sexual orientation. In A. R. D’Augelli & C. J. Patterson (Eds.) Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the lifespan (pp102-135). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bailey, J. M., Dunne, M. P. & Martin, N. G. (2000). Genetic and environmental influences on sexual orientation and its correlates in an Australian twin sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 33.

Bailey, J. M. & Pillard, R. C. (1991). A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 1089-1096.

Bailey, J. M., Pillard, R. C., Neale, M. C. & Agyei, Y. (1993). Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 217-223.

Bailey, J. M. & Zucker, K. J. (1995). Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation: A conceptual analysis and quantitative review. Developmental Psychology, 31, 43-55.

Baumrind, D. (1995). Commentary on sexual orientation: Research and social policy implications. Developmental Psychology, 31, 130-136.

Batra, V., Patkar, A. A., Berrettini, W. H., Weinstein, S. P., & Leone, F. T. (2003). The genetic determinants of smoking. Chest, 123, 1730-1739.

Bayer, R. (1981). Homosexuality and American psychiatry: The politics of diagnosis. New York: Basic Books.

Bell, A. P., Weinberg, M. S., & Hammersmith, S. K. (1981), Sexual preference: Its development in men and women. Bloomington: Indiana, Indiana University Press.

Bem, D. J. (2001). Exotic becomes erotic: Integrating biological and experiential antecedents of sexual orientation. In A. R. D’Augelli, & C. J. Patterson (2001). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities and youth (pp. 52-68). New York: Oxford University Press.

Billings, P. & Beckwith, J. (1993). Born gay? Technology Review, (July),  60-63.

Boklage, C. E. (1984). “Twining, handedness, and the biology of symmetry.” In N. Geschwind & A. M. Galaburda (Eds.) Cerebral dominance, (p 196-210). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Boughton, B. (2002, 2006). Smoking. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Downloaded on July 6th 2007 from: http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/common/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/smoking.jsp

Brooten, B. J. (1996). Love between women. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press,

Bruno, O. (2001). The importance of being portly.  In F. Crews (Ed.) Postmodern Pooh (65-79). New York: North Point Press.

Buchanan, A. Brock, D. W., Daniels, N., and Wikler, D. (2000). From chance to choice: Genetics and justice. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Byne, W. & Parsons, B. (1993). Human sexual orientation, The biologic theories reappraised. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 228-239.

Ceci, S. J., Barnett, S. M., & Kanaya, T. (2003). Developing childhood proclivities into adult competencies: The overlooked multiplier effect. In R. J. Sternberg & E. L. Grigorenko (Ed’s) The psychology of abilities, competencies, and expertise (70-92). Cambridge University Press.

Cravat, D. (2001). Twilight of the dogs.  In F. Crews (Ed.) Postmodern Pooh (147-161). New York: North Point Press.

Damerose, E. & Vauclair, J. (2002). Posture and laterality in human and non-human primates: Asymmetries in maternal handling and the infant’s early motor asymmetries. In L. J. Rogers & R. J. Andrew (Eds) Comparative vertebrate lateralization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (pp. 306-362).

Dawson, D. A. (1990). AIDS knowledge and attitudes for January-March 1990: Provisional data from the National Health Interview Survey, Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics 193 (Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, September 26, 1990, p.11).

Dörner, G. (1976). Hormones and brain differentiation. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Dörner, G., Rohde, W., Stahl, F., Krell, L.. & Masius, W.G. (1975). A neuroendocrine predisposition for homosexuality in men. Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 4, 1-8.

Dörner, G., Geier, T., Ahrens, L., Krell, L., Münx, G., Sieler, H., Kittner, E., & Müller, H. (1980). Prenatal stress as possible aetiogenic factor of homosexuality in human males. Endokrinologia, 60, 297-301.

Dörner, G., Schenk, B., Schmiedel, B., & Ahrens, L. (1983). Stressful events in prenatal life of bi- and homosexual men. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology, 81, 83-87.

Epstein, S. (1992). Gay politics, ethnic identity: The limits of social constructionism. In E. Stein (Ed.) Forms of desire (p. 239-293). New York: Routledge.

Ernulf, K. E. & Innala, S. M. (1989). Biological explanation, psychological explanation, and tolerance of homosexuals: A cross-national analysis of beliefs and attitudes. Psychological Reports, 65, 1003-1010.

Farrelly, C. (2004). The genetic difference principle. The American Journal of Bioethics, 4(2), W21-W28. Downloaded May, 5, 2007 from http://politicalscience.uwaterloo.ca/Farrelly/AJOB%20PDF%20paper.pdf

Fitti, J. E. & Cynamon, M. (1990). AIDS knowledge and attitudes for April-June 1990: Provisional data from the National Health Interview Survey, Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics 195 (Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, September 26, 1990, p.11).

Francis, R. (2001). Gene/Meme Covariation in Ashdown Forest: Pooh and the consilience of knowledge.  In F. Crews (Ed.) Postmodern Pooh (97-115). New York: North Point Press.

Giesler, J. B. (2005). An examination of smoking-related behaviours and self-perceptions, and the role of school connectedness in predicting cigarette use among students at an Ontario university. Master of Science Thesis, University of Waterloo.

Geschwind, N. & Behan, P. O. (1984). “Laterality, hormones, and immunity.” In N. Geschwind & A. M. Galaburda (Eds.) Cerebral dominance (p 211-224). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Geschwind, N. & Galaburda, A. M. (Eds.) (1984). Cerebral dominance. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Gladue, B. A. (1988). Hormones in relationship to homosexual/bisexual/heterosexual gender orientation. In J. M. A. Sitsen (Ed.) Handbook of sexology: The pharmacology and endocrinology of sexual function (pp 388-409). NY: Elsevier.

Glatze, M. (2007). How a 'gay rights' leader became straight. WorldNetDaily. Downloaded July 4th 2007 from: http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=56487

Goldberg, S. (1991). When wish replaces thought. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.

Gooren, L. J. G. (1988). An appraisal of endocrine theories of homosexuality and gender dysphoria. In J. M. A. Sitsen (Ed.) Handbook of sexology: The pharmacology and endocrinology of sexual function (pp 410-424). NY: Elsevier.

Graber, J. A. & Archibald, A. B. (2001). Psychosocial change at puberty and beyond: Understanding adolescent sexuality and sexual orientation. In A. R. D’Augelli, & C. J. Patterson (2001). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities and youth (pp3-26). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hamer, D. H., Hu, S., Magnuson, V. L., Hu, N., Pattatucci, A. M. L. (1993). A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation. Science, 261, 321-327.

Hamer, D. & Copeland, P. (1994). The science of desire. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Hamer, D. & Copeland, P. (1999). Living with our genes. New York: Anchor Books.

Han, C., McGue, M. K., & Iacono, W. G. (1999). Lifetime tobacco, alcohol and other substance use in adolescent Minnesota twins: Univariate and multivariate behavioral genetic analyses. Addiction, 94, 981-993.

Haskell, T. (2000). The relationship between sexual risk behaviour in adolescent females and involvement in school extracurricular activities and sport. A Major Paper submitted towards the M.Ed. Degree. The University of Windsor.

Healthy Living (2004-05). Summary of results of the 2004-05 Youth Smoking Survey. Downloaded May 12th 2007 from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/tobac-tabac/research-recherche/stat/survey-sondage/2004-2005/result_e.html

Hershberger, S. L. (2001). Biological factors in the development of sexual orientation. In A. R. D’Augelli, & C. J. Patterson (2001). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities and youth (pp27-51). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hitti, M. (2005). CDC: Smoking rates continue to drop. Downloaded April 6th from: http://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_story/0,3566,157811,00.html

Horgan, J. (1993). Eugenics revisited. Scientific American (June), 122-131.

Hurst, L. (2007). Hunting the gay gene. Toronto Daily Star, Saturday, June 23rd 2007, page ID3.

Irvine, J. M. (2001). Educational reform and sexual identity: Conflicts and challenges. In A. R. D’Augelli, & C. J. Patterson (2001). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities and youth (pp251-266). New York: Oxford University Press.

Is Change Really Possible? Downloaded  May 12th 2007 from: http://www.peoplecanchange.com/Is_Change_Possible.htm

Jonassen, D.H. (1991a). Evaluating constructivistic learning. Educational Technology, 28(11), 13-16.

Jonassen, D. H. (1991b). Objectivism versus constructivism: Do we need a new philosophical paradigm? Educational Technology Research and Development, 39(3), 5-14.

Jonassen, D. H. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth  (Ed). Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. 2, pp. 215-239). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Jones, S. L. & Yarhouse, M. A. (2000). Homosexuality, The use of scientific research in the Church’s moral debate. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press.

Kallman, F. J. (1952). Comparative twin study on the genetic aspects of male homosexuality. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 115, 137-159.

King, M. & McDonald, E. (1992). Homosexuals who are twins. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 407-409.

Kinsey, A. C. Pomeroy, W. B. & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company.

Kinsey, A. C. Pomeroy, W. B., Martin, C. E. & Gebhard (1953). Sexual behavior in the human female. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company.

Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Lagay, F. (no date). Genetic differences: Unfair or only unfortunate? Downloaded May 5, 2007 from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/6804.html

LeVay, S. (1991). A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Science, 253, 1034-1037.

Lidz, T. (1993). Reply to “A genetic study of male sexual orientation.” Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 240.

Lips, H. M. (2001). Sex & gender. Mountain View CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.

Madden, P. A. F., Pedersen, N. L., Kaprio, J., Koskenvuo, M. J., & Martin, N. G. (2004). The epidemiology and genetics of smoking initiation and persistence: Crosscultural comparisons of twin study results. Twin Research, 7, 82-97.

Maddox, J. (1991). Is homosexuality hard-wired? Nature, 353, 13.

Malatesta, D. (2001). The courage to squeal.  In F. Crews (Ed.) Postmodern Pooh (117-131). New York: North Point Press.

Masters, W. H. & Johnson, V. E. (1979). Homosexuality in perspective. Boston: Little, Brown & Company).

Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Ehrhardt, A. A., Rosen, L. R., Gruen, R. S., Veridiano, N. P., Vann, F. H., Neuwalder, H, F. (1995). Prenatal estrogens and the development of homosexual orientation. Developmental Psychology, 31, 12-21.

Moore. A. (2007). 'Gay'-rights leader quits homosexuality. WorldNetDaily. Downloaded July 4th, 2007 from: http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=56481

Morris, J. F., Waldo,, C. R., & Rothblum, E. D. (2001). A model of predictors and outcomes of Outness among lesbian and bisexual women. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71, 61-71.

Nicolosi, J. & Nicolosi, L. A. (2002). A parent’s guide to preventing homosexuality. Downers Grove Il: Intervarsity Press.

Northwest Territories Health and Social Services (2001). NWT Tobacco fact sheet. Downloaded May 5th 2007 from: http://www.hlthss.gov.nt.ca/pdf/brochures_and_fact_sheets/tobacco/2001/english/nwt_tobacco_fact_sheet.pdf

Pesman,  (1991, November). Love and sex in the ‘90s: Our national survey. Seventeen, 63-68.

Piskur, J. & Degelman, D. (1992). Effect of reading a summary of research about biological bases of homosexual orientation on attitudes toward homosexuals. Psychological Reports, 71, 1219-1225.

Popper, K. R. (1968). The logic of scientific discovery. New York: Harper Torchbook, Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.

Popper, K. R. (1965). Conjectures and refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge. New York: Harper Torchbook, Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.

Risch, N., Squires-Wheeler, E., & Keats, B. J. B. (1993). Science, 262, 2063-2065.

Robertson, L. & Monsen, J. (2001). Issues in the development of a gay or lesbian identity: Practice implications for educational psychologists. Educational and Child Psychology, 18, 13-30.

Rahman, Q. & Silber, K. (2000). Sexual orientation and the sleep-wake cycle: A preliminary investigation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 127-134.

Reitan, E. (2007). Love the sinner, hate the sin? Free Inquiry, 27(3), 42-43.

Remafedi, G., Farrow, J. A., & Deisher, R. W. (1991). Risk factors for attempted suicide in gay and bisexual youth. Pediatrics, 87, 869-875.

Remafedi, G., Resnick, M., Blum, R., & Harris, L. (1992). Demography of sexual orientation in adolescents. Pediatrics, 89, 714-721.

Rice, G., Anderson, C., Risch, N., & Ebers, G. (1999). Male homosexuality: Absence of linkage to microsatellite markers at Xq28. Science, 284, 665-667.

Rivers, I. & D’Augelli, A. R. (2001). The victimization of lesbian, gay and bisexual youths. In A. R. D’Augelli, & C. J. Patterson (2001). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities and youth (pp199-223). New York: Oxford University Press.

Rotherham-Borus, M. J. & Langabeer, K. A. (2001). Developmental trajectories of gay, lesbian and bisexual youths. In A. R. D’Augelli, & C. J. Patterson (2001). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities and youth (pp 97-128). New York: Oxford University Press.

Rutter, M. (2002). The interplay of nature, nurture, and developmental influences. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 996-1000.

Ryan, C. (2001). Counseling lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. In A. R. D’Augelli, & C. J. Patterson (2001). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities and youth (pp 224-250). New York: Oxford University Press.

Satinover. J. (1996). Homosexuality and the politics of truth. Grand Rapids MI: Baker Books

Schneider, M. S. (2001). Toward a reconceptualization of the coming-out process for adolescent females. In A. R. D’Augelli, & C. J. Patterson (2001). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities and youth (pp. 71-96). New York: Oxford University Press.

Singer, P. (2001). Heavy petting. Downloaded January 2005 from http://www.nerve.com/opinions/singer/heavypetting/main.asp

Socarides, C. W. (1992). Sexual politics and scientific logic: The issue of homosexuality. The Journal of Psychohistory, 19, 307-329.

Solms, M. (2006). Freud returns. Scientific American Mind, 17(2), 28-34.

Spitzer, R. L. (2001). 200 subjects who claim to have changed their sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual. Presentation at the American Psychiatric Association Annual Convention. New Orleans, May 9, 2001. Downloaded from http://www.newdirection.ca/research/spitzer.htm

Spitzer, R. L. (2003). Can some gay men and lesbians change their sexual orientation? 200 participants reporting a change from homosexual to heterosexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 403-417.

Stein, E. (1999). The mismeasure of desire. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stein, E. (1992). Conclusion: The essentials of Constructionism and the construction of Essentialism. In E. Stein (Ed.) Forms of desire. New York: Routledge.

Strickland, B. (1995). Research on sexual orientation and human development: A commentary. Developmental Psychology, 31, 137-140.

Swaab, D. F. & Hofman, M. A. (1990). An enlarged suprachiasmatic nucleus in homosexual men. Brain Research, 537, 141-148.

Throckmorton, W. (1998). Attempts to modify sexual orientation: A review of outcome literature and ethical issues. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20, 283-304.

Watkins, M. (no date). Creation of the sinister: Biological contributions to left-handedness. Downloaded May 15, 2007 from http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/~husn/BRAIN/vol2/left.html

Weinrich, J. (1992). Reality or social construction? In E. Stein (Ed.) Forms of desire (p. 175-208). New York: Routledge.

Williams, C. J. & Weinberg, M. S. (2003). Zoophilia in men: A study of sexual interest in animals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 523-535.

Wood, M. E. (2000). How we got this way: The sciences of homosexuality and the Christian Right. Journal of Homosexuality, 38, 19-40.

Yarhouse, M. A. & Throckmorton, W. (2002). Ethical issues in attempts to ban reorientation therapies. Psychotherapy: Theory/Research/Practice/Training, 39, 66-75.

Zucker, K. J. & Bradley, S. J. (1995). Gender identity disorder and psychosexual problems in children and adolescents. New York: The Guilford Press.